The auditory system has a remarkable ability to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Such plasticity is essential in the development of structures in the brain that process auditory signals, but also is important in adults for functional recovery following peripheral hearing loss, adaptation to auditory prosthetics (e.g., hearing aids or cochlear implants), and learning to discriminate particular sounds. This Collection from the Journal of Neurophysiology is focused on the neurobiology and physiological relevance of auditory system plasticity, in both juveniles and adults. (Image: http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00319.2015)
Cover: Multiregional Brain-on-a-Chip in vitro model. Neurons (green) from different brain regions (here prefrontal cortex, left, and amygdala, right) are restricted to distinct areas, but are connecting controllably to the other brain region through axons which are guided by microcontact printed lines. This is a zoom in image from the entire brain-on-a-chip model, which consists of three brain regions. This multiregional brain-on-a-chip is electrically active and reacts to drug applications in a brain region dependent way. Astrocytes are labelled in red. The smallest distance between the different brain areas is 1 mm. From Dauth S, Maoz BM, Sheehy SP, Hemphill MA, Murty T, Macedonia MK, Greer AM, Budnik B, Parker KK. Neurons derived from different brain regions are inherently different in vitro: a novel multiregional brain-on-a-chip. J Neurophysiol 117: 1320 –1341, 2017; doi:10.1152/jn.00575.2016.