Neural interfaces are systems operating at the intersection of the nervous system and an internal or external device. Neural interfaces include neural prosthetics, which are artificial extensions to the body that restore or supplement function of the nervous system lost during disease or injury, and implantable neural stimulators that provide therapy. This Collection from the Journal of Neurophysiology is focused is focused on biological studies that inform the development of neural interfaces, as well as studies that demonstrate how particular interfaces alter neural function. (Image: http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00103.2016)
Cover: Electrophysiological and morphological measurements were obtained simultaneously from a single corticospinal neuron. These data served as constraints on evolutionary optimization, generating a family of corticospinal models. A three-dimensional reconstruction serves as the backbone for a pseudo-color visualization of synaptic efficiency as a function of dendritic location, simulated in a single biophysical model selected from the family of optimal individuals. Excitatory synapses at yellow dendritic locations resulted in the largest depolarizations at the soma, while the same synaptic activation at purple locations generated only weak somatic depolarizations. This visualization is surrounded by scatter plots representing the evolutionary optimization: biophysical models optimized across different fitness functions demonstrate tradeoffs between full high-dimensional error (y-axis) and individual error scores (individual x-axes; clockwise order from top
left: subthreshold error, instantaneous firing rate error, spike-shape error, average firing rate error). Color based on 5 error percentiles in increasing instantaneous firing-rate error (purple, red, dark orange, light orange, yellow). From Neymotin SA, Suter BA, Dura-Bernal S, Shepherd GMG, Migliore M, Lytton WW. Optimizing computer models of corticospinal neurons to replicate in vitro dynamics. J Neurophysiol; doi:10.1152/jn.00570.2016.