Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra et al. 2016, Phase dependency of the human primary motor cortex and cholinergic inhibition cancellation during beta tACS, Cerebral Cortex 26:3977-2990). This work suggests that different cortical interneuronal populations can be characterized by their phase- and frequency-dependency. Here we discuss how combining TMS and tACS can reveal the frequency at which cortical interneuronal populations oscillate, the neuronal origins of behaviorally-relevant cortical oscillations, and how entraining cortical oscillations could potentially treat brain disorders.
- brain oscillations
- transcranial magnetic stimulation
- transcranial alternating current stimulation
- Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology