Table 1.

Comparison of muscle and skin sympathetic nerve activity responsiveness to different stimuli

StimulusMSNASSNA
Respiratory
    Valsalva maneuver (during)
    Valsalva maneuver (after)
    Apnea (end-inspiratory)?
    Apnea (end-expiratory)
    Deep breath
    Hyperventilation
Cardiovascular
    Head-up tilt
    Lower body negative pressure
    Head-down neck flexion
    Isometric exercise
    Dynamic exercise
    Post-exercise ischemia
Thermoregulatory
    Whole body heating (mild)
    Whole body heating (moderate/severe)
    Whole body cooling (mild)?
    Whole body cooling (moderate/severe)
Other
    Arousal
    Mental stress↑, ↔
    Smoking
  • MSNA, muscle sympathetic nerve activity; SSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity. [Adapted from Delius et al. (1972c); compiled from Carter and Ray (2008); Charkoudian and Wallin (2014); Delius et al. (1972a, 1972b); Fatouleh and Macefield (2013); Greaney et al. (2016); Hagbarth et al. (1972); Hart et al. (2017); Narkiewicz et al. (1998); Ray et al. (1997); Saito et al. (1990); Silber et al. (1998); Vallbo et al. (2004); and Wilson et al. (2006).]